Although vaccine delivery through the oral route remains the most convenient and safest way for mass immunization purposes, this method is limited by the requirement for large antigen doses and low vaccine efficacy. In this study, we generated recombinant baculoviruses (rBVs) expressing influenza hemagglutinin (A/PR/8/34) and orally delivered a low dose of rBVs to evaluate its vaccine efficacy in mice. Intranasal rBV vaccination was included in the whole experiment for comparison. We found that oral vaccination elicited high levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses in both serum and mucosal samples (lung, tracheal, intestinal, fecal and vaginal). Surprisingly, complete protection from the lethal influenza challenge was observed, as indicated by reductions in the virus titer, inflammatory cytokine production, body weight change, and enhanced survival. These results suggest that oral delivery of the influenza rBV vaccine induces mucosal and systemic immunity, which protect mice from the lethal influenza virus challenge. Oral delivery of baculovirus vaccines can be developed as an effective vaccination route.
Title: Influenza vaccine efficacy induced by orally administered recombinant baculoviruses
Journal: PLoS ONE 15(5): e0233520