Naturally occurring spatiotemporal patterns typically have a predictable pattern design and are reproducible over several cycles. However, the patterns obtained from artificially designed out-of-equilibrium chemical oscillating networks (such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction for example) are unpredictable and difficult to control spatiotemporally, albeit reproducible over subsequent cycles. Here, we show that it is possible to generate reproducible spatiotemporal patterns in out-of-equilibrium chemical reactions and self-assembling systems in water in the presence of sound waves, which act as a guiding physical stimulus. Audible sound-induced liquid vibrations control the dissolution of atmospheric gases (such as O2 and CO2) in water to generate spatiotemporal chemical patterns in the bulk of the fluid, segregating the solution into spatiotemporal domains having different redox properties or pH values. It further helps us in the organization of transiently formed supramolecular aggregates in a predictable spatiotemporal manner.
Title: Audible sound-controlled spatiotemporal patterns in out-of-equilibrium systems
Journal: Nature Chemistry 2020, 12, 808–813